WWI: Fifty two months, fifty two posts – 48 – Another Month of War

A look at the major events in the conflict during July 1918:

July 1st
The US troop transport ship USS Covington is torpedoed by German submarine U-86 off Brest, France.

July 3rd
Turkish Sultan Mohammed V of the Ottoman Empire dies at the Yildiz Palace in Constantinople and is succeeded by his brother Mohammed VI.

July 4th
The Battle of Hamel takes place, the successful attack being launched by the Australian Corps and American troops against German positions in and around the town of Hamel in northern France.

Hamel

July 5th
The Treaty of Bucharest, which had been signed between Romania and the Central Powers in May, is ratified by the Romanian Senate.

July 6th
Wilhelm von Mirbach, the German ambassador to Russia, is assassinated in Moscow. He is succeeded by Karl Heifferich.

July 8th
Ernest Hemmingway is severely wounded carrying a fellow worker to safety while working as a Red Cross ambulance driver on the Austro-Italian front. Hemmingway was sent home and later received the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery for his heroism. His novel A Farewell to Arms is based on his time serving in this war.

Hemmingway

July 9th
Paul von Hintze succeeds Richard von Huhlmann as Germany’s Minister for Foreign Affairs.

July 10th
The Russian Constitution is adopted by the Congress of Soviets.

July 11th
Henry Ford’s innovative new type of anti-submarine vessel, the first Eagle class patrol craft is launched in the United States.

July 12th
The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship UN Kawachi sinks in Tokuyama Bay after an ammunition magazine explodes.

July 13th
Turkish forces attack British positions on the River Jordan and begin their final offensive to recover Jericho.

July 14th
US Air Service pilot and son of former US President Theodore Roosevelt, Quentin Roosevelt  is shot down and killed b a German Fokker plane over the River Marne in France.

Quentin Roosevelt

July 15th
The Second Battle of the Marne begins and marks the final phase of the German Spring Offensive with German troops attacking French troops.

July 16th
Austro-Hungarian Commander-in-Chief Field Marshal Conrad von Hotzendorf is relieved of his command.

July 17th
In the early hours of the morning at a house in the town of Ekaterinburg Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their children Alexei, Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, are executed together with other members of their household by the Bolsheviks.

July 18th
A French led counterattack halts the German forward momentum during the Second Battle of the Marne and seizes the initiative for the Allies on the Western Front.

July 19th
The British troopship HMS Justicia sinks after being torpedoed by the German submarines UB-64 and UB-124 of the coast of Scotland whilst sailing from Belfast to New York.

Justicia

July 20th
The British destroyers HMS Marne, Milbrook and Pigeon attack UB-124 with depth charges and sink the German submarine with gunfire as she surfaces.

July 21st
The Attack on Orleans takes place when a German U-boat opens fire on the US town of Orleans, Massachusetts and several merchant ships nearby. A tugboat is sunk but the town only sustains minor damage in the naval aerial action.

July 22nd
The Battle of Soissons between French and American troops and the German armies ends after four days with the Allies recapturing most of the ground lost to the German Spring Offensive in May 1918.

Soissons

July 24th
French and American troops advance south of Ourcq towards Fere-en-Tarenois and along the Marne in the Forest of Fere.

July 25th
Baron Max Hussarek von Heinlein replaces Ernst Seidler von Feuchtenegg as Prime Minister of Austria.

July 26th
A coup d’etat overthrow the Bolsheviks in Baku and launch the Battle of Baku between the Ottoman-Azerbaijani coalition forces and Bolshevik forces. The battle is fought as the conclusive part of the Caucasus Campaign.

July 28th
Allied forces recapture Fere-en-Tardenois as the northward advance continues from Marne.

Fere en tardenois

July 30th
General Field Marshal Hermann von Eichhorn is assassinated in Kiev by the Socialist-Revolutionary Boris Mikhailovich Donskoy.

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