WWI: Fifty two months, fifty two posts – 52 – The Last Month of War

A look at the major events in the conflict during November 1918:

November 1st
The Battle of Valenciennes is launched by the British Army to advance to the French-Belgian border and the city of Valenciennes. The offensive lasts two days and results in the recapture of the city.

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November 2nd
British cargo ships SS Surada and SS Murcia are both sunk by the German submarine UC-74 near Port Said.

November 3rd
The Allied Governments agree to German proposals for an armistice based on President Wilson’s fourteen point programme of 8 January 1918.

November 4th
The Battle of the Sambre begins and continues the advance by British French troops in the direction of Valenciennes. The offensive includes the Second Battle of Guise.

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25 year old Wilfred Owen is killed in action during the crossing of the Sambre-Oise Canal in France.

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November 6th
American forces capture the city of Sedan in France.

November 7th
The monarchy under King Ludwig III of Bavaria is abolished in favour of a republic. Socialist politician Kurt Eisner is proclaimed as head of the Bavarian Government.

November 8th
At Compiegne in France, Marshal Ferdinand Fock presents representatives of the German Government with armistice terms. The terms include German evacuation of all occupied territory, an Allied occupation of Germany west of the Rhine River, surrender of weaponry including all submarines and battleships and indefinite continuation of the naval blockade.

November 9th
The Kaiser’s Imperial Government collapses as a German republic is proclaimed with Friedrich Ebert heading the new provisional government. Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and is advised to leave the country after his generals warn him they may not be able to protect him from the volatile situation in Germany.

Kaiser Wilhelm II.

November 10th
Kaiser Wilhelm II, now private citizen Wilhelm Hohenzollern, crosses the boarder by rain and goes into exile in the Netherlands (which has remained neutral throughout the war).

November 11th
At 05:00 in a railway car at Compiegne the Germans sign the Armistice which becomes effective at 11:00 – the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. Fighting continues all along the Western Front until precisely 11 o’clock.

November 12th
The reign of Emperor Charles I of Austria ends following his Proclamation of 11 November acknowledging the decision taken by German-Austria to form a separate state.

November 13th
The Occupation of Constantinople begins when British, French and Italian troops start to occupy the capital city of the Ottoman Empire following the Armistice of Mudros.

November 14th
Tomas Garrigue Masarky is elected President of the Czechoslovak republic by the National Assembly in Prague.

November 15th
SMS Koningsberg arrives in Scapa Flow carrying Rear Admiral Hugo Meurer for a meeting with Admiral David Beatty the commander of the Grand Fleet, to negotiate the place of internment of the German fleet.

November 16th
The Polish President Jozef Pilsudski declares Poland an Independent and Sovereign State.

November 18th
The Republic of Latvia is proclaimed an independent state in the Second Riga Theatre and the Democratic Republic of Latvia is established.

November 20th
The first contingent of German submarines surrender to the Royal Navy at Harwich. Over 100 U-boats will be surrendered during the coming months.

November 21st
At the Capitulation of Rosyth the German High Seas Fleet surrender to British authorities for internment at Scapa Flow.

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November 23rd
The Yugoslav National Council vote to form a common state, that will include Serbia and Montenegro.

November 24th
The Yugoslav National Council express its concern regarding Italian regional territorial claims on South Slavic territory in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.

November 25th
German forces commanded by General on Lettow-Vorbeck surrender to the British at Abercorn in German East Africa.

November 26th
Entente squadrons arrive at Odessa and Sevastopol and take over the remainder of the Russian Black Sea Fleet from the Germans.

November 27th
King George V visits Paris where he receives and enthusiastic reception.

November 28th
Kaiser Wilhelm II officially signs the Abdication Proclamation renouncing his claims to the throne of Prussia and to the German Imperial throne.

November 30th
Kaiser Wilhelm II’s Abdication Proclamation is formally published in Berlin.

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